Annex 3: BRIDGE Modules at a Glance

Foundation Modules

Introduction to Electoral Administration

  • Standards, principles and management techniques that are fundamental to good electoral practice
  • Foundation module for further deepening study of elections in the specialised modules of the BRIDGE curriculum

Strategic and Financial Planning

  • Planning and project management skills that underpin any successful electoral endeavour
  • Foundation module for the operational planning thematic group of modules of the BRIDGE curriculum
  • Electoral Architecture

Boundary Delimitation

  • Alternative approaches to boundary delimitation
  • Main principles underlying a credible and acceptable boundary delimitation process
  • Delimitation tasks such as allocating seats, producing databases of maps and data, evaluating district plans and preparing an operational plan for the conduct of a delimitation process

 Electoral Management Design

  • Elements of electoral management design, and categorise the main types of electoral management bodies
  • How design and institutional culture affect the credibility of the electoral management body

 Electoral Systems

  • Alternative approaches to and classifications of electoral systems
  • Main principles and criteria for electoral system design;
  • Implications of alternative electoral systems on the representation of various groups in society, on cost, and on the sustainability of institutions

 Electoral Technology

  • A framework for policy makers, electoral officials and electoral stakeholders to decide on the appropriate level of technology
  • Overview of the state of the art of technological application in elections
  • Sound management approach in introducing new technologies

 Legal Framework

  • Universally accepted standards of elections and how they apply through legal frameworks
  • Elements of the legal framework and how they meet international standards for democratic elections
  • Requirements of free access to the electoral process for candidates, voters and the media
  • How integrity of the electoral process is guaranteed by the voting procedures, a transparent, accurate and rapid tabulation of results as well as by provisions for transparency in the legal framework
  • A legal framework that can respond to complaints and violations

Political Financing

  • Main principles, structures and institutions underlying a credible and workable political financing regulatory framework
  • Possible resolutions to significant political financing issues and stumbling blocks in their immediate environment
  • The opportunity to refect on how their learnings apply to the specific work tasks, and, where possible, to experience political financing tasks and enhance skills to support the professional and political work of participants

 

Electoral Operations

Electoral Security

  • Role of security as an integral element of elections
  • How threats or hostile action against electoral personnel and processes can serve to undermine the goals of democratic elections, and affect election outcomes and the political composition of legislature
  • Role of security in procurement, establishment, training and deployment of personnel and assets
  • Issues associated with information security
  • Role of military and police working with election management bodies
  • Draft assessments of threat and risk
  • Election security plan

 

Electoral Training

  • Principles of training;
  • Implementation of training including needs assessment, training plans, training strategy, and logistical arrangements
  • Concrete training skills

 

External Voting

  • Principles of external voting (why have external voting and why not? What are the criteria for eligibility as an external voter? What is required to vote?)
  • Implementation of external voting including logistical arrangements (What are the voter registration methods for external voters? What are the voting methods? Where do they vote and when?) including also cost of external voting
  • Political impact of external voting
  • Design of evaluation or reporting process of external voting activities

 

Polling, Counting and Results

  • Tools to develop a thorough logistics plan for polling, counting and results
  • Standards, principles and management techniques that are fundamental to good logistical planning
  • Resources (human and material, sensitive and non-sensitive) required for polling, counting and results

 

Post-election Activities

  • Importance of the post-election period to electoral stakeholders, electoral officials and policy makers as the opportune moment for reflection and forward planning
  • Aspects of sustainability as related to elections

 

Pre-election Activities

  • Tools to develop a thorough logistics plan in a professional, ethical and confident way
  • Complexity of the logistical operations of elections
  • Importance of thorough planning of all aspects of elections

 

Voter Registration

  • Principles of voter registration (Why have registration? What are the criteria for eligibility?)
  • Legal foundations and three main types of voter register
  • Major operational steps towards successful voter registration
  • Alternative approaches to voter registration for election designers, policy makers and advocacy groups
  • Logistical arrangements and implementation steps of a voter registration exercise


Working with Electoral Stakeholders


Access to Electoral Processes

  • Areas of the electoral process where access is an issue – what access problems, what parts of the population are affected, and what solutions exist
  • Networking opportunity for advocacy groups, as well as specific tools to analyse the electoral structures and procedures and develop strategies to promote access
  • Importance of consultation processes throughout the electoral cycle – from post-election analysis through design of materials and procedures – in order to affect real improvement of access

 

Civic Education

  • Principles of civic education
  • Different types of civic programs
  • Different mediums used in civic education programs
  • Program Elements – Preparation, Design and Planning, Implementation, Issues and Evaluation
  • Plan/program design for civic education in your country

 

Electoral Assistance

  • Importance of a) seeing elections as a cycle rather than an event, b) credibility in the electoral process
  • Good practice in electoral assistance, both from the perspective of those receiving and those giving

 

Electoral Contestants

  • Electoral principles, structures and processes as they affect party and candidate representatives
  • Nature and organisation of political contests in order to effectively manage them
  • Mechanisms for communication between EMBs and parties
  • Technical, legal and operational aspects of candidate nominations in order to ensure a credible electoral process
  • Conditions required to guarantee equitable access to media and the appropriate use of campaign finances, in order to establish a level playing field for all contestants

 

Electoral Dispute Resolution

  • Bodies responsible for managing election conflicts and disputes.
  • Mechanisms used and their advantages and disadvantages
  • Accepted standards and principles for dealing with conflicts and disputes
  • Skills used in best practice in informal conflict management
  • Typical court process and its advantages and disadvantages in dispute resolution

 

Electoral Observation

  • Principles of electoral observation (Why have observers? Who should they be? What should they do?)
  • Electoral observation assessment guidelines and instruments
  • Code of conduct for observers
  • Plan for managing observers

 

Gender and Elections

  • Why women's participation is important and how to improve it
  • The electoral process and strategies to promote women's participation for women’s advocacy groups
  • Tools to look at elections from a gender perspective
  • Networking opportunity for women's advocacy groups

 

Media and Elections

  • Electoral principles, structures and processes as they affect media regulation, campaign and election coverage and voter education
  • Mechanisms for communication between EMBs and media in advance of an electoral process

 

Voter Information

  • Principles of voter information and education
  • Different types of voter information and education programs
  • Different mediums used in voter information and education programs
  • Program Elements – Preparation, Design and Planning, Implementation, Issues and Evaluation
  • Plan/program design for voter information and education in your country